Friday, February 5, 2016

Planet Dalam dan Planet Luar serta Benda – Benda Langit Lainnya

Dari artikel sebelumnya kita telah mengetahui delapan planet yang mengelilingi matahari pada tata surya kita. Yakni merkurius, venus, bumi, mars, yupiter yang, saturnus, dan uranus serta neptunus yang memiliki ukuran hampir sama dengan uranus sehingga keduanya disebut sebagai planet kembar.
Dari ke delapan planet tersebut para ahli mengelompokkan planet-planet tersebut menjadi dua kelompok yaitu planet dalam dan planet luar, sebagai berikut.
Planet Dalam 
Penggolongan planet dalam ada dua macam yaitu
1. Berdasarkan orbit bumi, maka planet dalam terdiri dari Merkurius dan Venus.
2.  Berdasarkan keberadaan asteroid planet yang terdapat di antara mars dan yupiter, maka plenet dalam terdiri dari Merkurius, Venus, Bumi dan Mars. 
Planet Luar 
Planet-planet luar merupakan planet yang bukan termasuk dari planet dalam yakni yupiter, saturnus, uranus, dan neptunus.  
Benda-Benda Langit Lainnya 
Selain terdiri dari planet, Tata Surya juga terdiri dari benda-benda langit sebagai anggotanya dengan lintasan yang berbeda.
  • Satelit merupakan benda langit yang selain mengelilingi matahari dia juga mengiringi planet. Satelit dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu satelit buatan dan satelit alam. Satelit yang sudah ada dalam tata surya disebut satelit alam sedangkan satelit yang dibuat oleh manusia disebut satelit buatan.
  • Meteoroid atau bintang beralih merupakan benda langit berukuran kecil yang melayang-layang di angkasa luar. Meteoroid yang kemudian bergesekan dengan atmosfer bumi akan menimbulkan bunga api. Cahaya bunga api tersebut yang disebut dengan meteor disebut juga bintang jatuh atau bintang beralih.
  • Komet disebut juga bintang berekor. Terkadang komet muncul di tata surya dan kita dapat melihanya pada waktu tertentu. Komet Halley merupakan komet yang paling terkenal yang muncul setiap 76 tahun sekali.
  • Asteroid merupaan benda langit yang mengelilingi matahari berukuran kecil dan memiliki lintasan tertentu. Lintasan asteroid pada umumnya terdapat di  antara orbit Mars dan Yupiter. Lintasan asteroid tersebut disebut dengan Sabuk Asteroid. Salah satu asteroid yang terkenal adalah Ceres yang berdiameter 975 km.

Demikian informasi tentang planet dalam dan planet luar serta benda-benda langit penyusun tata surya lainnya. Semoga bermanfaat.



Fakta atau Fiksi ?: Video Games Apakah Masa Depan Pendidikan

Beberapa pendidik bersumpah oleh mereka sebagai alat pengajaran teknologi tinggi yang

berharga tetapi sedikit yang diketahui tentang dampaknya terhadap pembelajaran

Sebagai anak-anak di seluruh kepala AS kembali ke sekolah, mereka dipaksa untuk

menghabiskan lebih sedikit waktu di depan gangguan digital favorit mereka. Atau apakah

mereka?

Video game memainkan peran peningkatan dalam kurikulum sekolah sebagai guru berusaha untuk

memberikan pelajaran inti seperti matematika dan membaca-belum lagi keterampilan baru

seperti komputer pemrograman-dalam format yang memegang kepentingan siswa mereka. Beberapa

pemberita gamification ini pendidikan sebagai jalan masa depan dan alat yang memungkinkan

siswa untuk mengambil peran lebih aktif dalam pembelajaran karena mereka mengembangkan

keterampilan teknologi yang mereka butuhkan untuk berhasil sepanjang karier akademik dan

profesional mereka.

Beberapa berpendapat bahwa video game dapat melakukan semuanya dalam hal pendidikan, kata

Scot Osterweil, direktur riset di Massachusetts Institute of Program Ilmu Perbandingan

Media Teknologi dan direktur kreatif Pendidikan Arcade inisiatif sekolah untuk menjelajahi

bagaimana permainan dapat digunakan untuk mempromosikan pembelajaran . Tapi game adalah

alat belajar yang kuat bila dikombinasikan dengan eksplorasi lainnya, tangan-kegiatan dan

instruksi yang sedang berlangsung dari seorang guru bertindak lebih sebagai pelatih dari

dosen, ia menambahkan.

Namun, yang mempertanyakan apakah lebih mengandalkan video game adalah kepentingan terbaik

siswa, menunjukkan ada sedikit bukti bahwa bermain game terampil diterjemahkan ke dalam

skor tes yang lebih baik atau perkembangan kognitif yang lebih luas.

Di sekolah-sekolah dekade terakhir telah menjadi sibuk dengan memenuhi standar umum Inti

nasional, yang mendikte apa yang siswa harus dapat capai dalam bahasa Inggris dan

matematika di akhir setiap kelas dan menggunakan pengujian standar sebagai cara untuk

melacak kemajuan siswa. tuntutan tersebut tidak kondusif untuk metode pengajaran kreatif

yang menggabungkan video game, Osterweil mengakui. Dia menambahkan, bagaimanapun, bahwa

reaksi yang berkembang terhadap berlebihan yang dirasakan dari tes standar mulai mendorong

kreativitas sekali lagi.

Gamestars
Pengujian kelelahan, dikombinasikan dengan penggunaan komputer lebih meresap dalam dan

keluar dari kelas dan dilanjutkan eksperimen dengan permainan sebagai alat pembelajaran,

menunjukkan bahwa video game tersebut akan memainkan peran penting dalam masa depan

pendidikan. Quest untuk Belajar sekolah umum di New York City menawarkan sekilas tentang

bagaimana game sudah mengubah bukan hanya bagaimana siswa belajar, tetapi juga apa yang

mereka pelajari. Para guru di sana telah menggunakan prinsip-prinsip desain video game

untuk menulis kurikulum mereka sejak sekolah dibuka pada tahun 2009. kurikulum-diatur dalam

misi dan ini quests-berfokus pada tantangan multifaset yang mungkin memiliki lebih dari

satu jawaban yang benar, membiarkan siswa mengeksplorasi solusi yang berbeda dengan membuat

pilihan di sepanjang jalan, kata Ross Flatt, asisten kepala sekolah di sekolah.

Lebih dari sekedar bermain video game, Quest untuk Belajar siswa juga belajar desain game

menggunakan Gamestar Mechanic dan program komputer lainnya. Setelah siswa misi Gamestar

berhasil selesai, mereka diberikan avatar dan alat-alat lain yang dapat mereka gunakan

untuk membangun permainan mereka sendiri.

Jika video game pendidikan dijalankan dengan baik, mereka dapat memberikan kerangka yang

kuat untuk penyelidikan dan pembelajaran berbasis proyek, kata Alan Gershenfeld, co-founder

dan presiden E-Line Media, penerbit komputer dan video game dan Pendiri Industri Fellow di

Arizona State University Center for Games dan Dampak. "Permainan juga unik cocok untuk

membina keterampilan yang diperlukan untuk navigasi kompleks, saling berhubungan, yang

berubah dengan cepat abad ke-21," tambahnya.

melek digital dan memahami bagaimana sistem (komputer dan sebaliknya) pekerjaan akan

menjadi semakin penting di dunia di mana banyak siswa hari ini akan mengejar pekerjaan yang

saat ini tidak ada, kata Gershenfeld, yang menulis tentang potensi video game 'untuk

mengubah pendidikan di Scientific Februari Amerika. pekerja besok juga akan kemungkinan

pekerjaan perubahan berkali-kali sepanjang karir mereka dan "hampir pasti akan memiliki

pekerjaan yang memerlukan beberapa tingkat penguasaan media digital dan teknologi,"

tambahnya.

Game sistem
Orang tua dari anak-anak usia sekolah cenderung akrab dengan Minecraft, game digital yang

mempromosikan imajinasi sebagai pemain membangun berbagai struktur dari batu. MinecraftEdu,

versi dari permainan yang guru dibuat untuk tujuan pendidikan, mengajarkan siswa konsep-

konsep matematika termasuk keliling, luas dan probabilitas serta bahasa asing. SimCityEDU,

versi dari permainan kota-bangunan populer, adalah juga alat pembelajaran dan penilaian

untuk siswa sekolah menengah yang meliputi bahasa Inggris, matematika dan pelajaran lainnya

yang mereka butuhkan untuk menguasai untuk memenuhi standar Inti Negara umum dan Next

Generation Science.

Di luar mengajar, video game juga dapat menawarkan informasi yang berguna tentang seberapa

baik seorang anak belajar dan bahkan dapat memberikan bermanfaat tampilan visual dari

informasi itu, kata Brian Waniewski, pengusaha sosial dan mantan direktur Institut Play,

sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang mempromosikan masalah -solving sifat bermain game dan desain

game sebagai model untuk belajar di sekolah menengah. Video game juga dapat memberikan

umpan balik-biasanya seketika melalui skor-guru dan siswa dapat digunakan untuk menentukan

seberapa baik siswa memahami apa permainan yang mencoba untuk mengajar mereka.

keterbatasan
Untuk semua antusiasme sekitar permainan dan belajar, sangat sedikit penelitian yang

meneliti apakah video game meningkatkan kinerja kelas dan prestasi akademik, kata Emma

Blakey, peneliti PhD dalam psikologi perkembangan dari University of Sheffield di Inggris.

"Karena kita tahu memori adalah keterampilan kognitif penting untuk pembelajaran sekolah,

praktek di bermain game yang menantang memori harus, dalam teori, menyebabkan perbaikan

dalam perilaku kelas dan keterampilan akademik," katanya. Tapi hanya penelitian tambahan

bisa mengatakan kalau itu gagasan benar.

Sebuah 2013 University of Cambridge studi bergabung dengan Darren Dunning dari University

of York, menemukan bahwa perbaikan dalam skor game untuk anak-anak dengan tingkat rendah

memori kerja tidak meluas ke keterampilan yang lebih luas. Bekerja memori adalah sistem

kognitif yang bertanggung jawab untuk penyimpanan sementara informasi yang kita butuhkan

untuk mendukung kegiatan sehari-hari yang sedang berlangsung, seperti kombinasi loker atau

teman Twitter pegangan. Studi ini memberikan tujuh sampai sembilan-year-olds hingga 25 sesi

baik video game ditetapkan untuk menantang bekerja memori-yang disebut "CogMed"

pendekatan-atau video game yang sama ditetapkan pada tingkat yang mudah mereka. Para

peneliti kemudian meneliti apakah bermain game lebih sulit meningkatkan kinerja pada

langkah-langkah tambahan memori kerja serta keterampilan lainnya ditingkatkan, termasuk

matematika, membaca, menulis dan mengikuti instruksi di ruang kelas. Studi ini menyimpulkan

bahwa video otak-pelatihan game meningkatkan kinerja anak-anak hanya pada permainan sangat

mirip, efek yang mungkin hasil dari praktek.

game digital tidak dapat diperlakukan seperti perbaikan cepat terbaru untuk sistem

pendidikan, Waniewski kata. "Mereka bisa tampak seperti berkah, generasi berikutnya buku

digital yang lebih lanjut mengurangi kebutuhan sumber daya manusia," catatan dia. Namun

game saja tidak akan membuat sekolah lebih efisien, menggantikan guru atau melayani sebagai

sumber daya pendidikan yang dapat mencapai jumlah tak terbatas siswa, ia menambahkan.

Video game tidak selalu pilihan yang paling hemat biaya untuk sekolah dengan anggaran ketat

dan ruang kelas yang ramai, baik. Mereka membutuhkan komputer, tablet atau teknologi khusus

lainnya serta server Internet dedicated dan sistem komunikasi lainnya. Ada juga mungkin

kebutuhan infrastruktur tambahan, personil dan pelatihan guru. Sebuah kurikulum penuh,

game-infused bisa biaya jutaan dolar dan memerlukan dukungan yang berkelanjutan,

Gershenfeld kata.

Sejauh mana video game adalah masa depan pendidikan masih harus dilihat. Tapi jika saat ini

adalah indikasi, guru yang merangkul media dan cenderung terus melakukannya. Bahkan, dari

guru-guru yang menggunakan video game di dalam kelas, lebih dari setengah memiliki anak-

anak bermain mereka sebagai bagian dari kurikulum setidaknya sekali seminggu, menurut

survei nasional yang dirilis oleh para peneliti pendidikan di Joan Ganz Cooney Center Juni.

Mungkin dampak terbesar dari video game akan pada siswa yang tidak merespon juga untuk

metode pengajaran tradisional. Hampir setengah dari guru yang disurvei mengatakan itu

adalah siswa berkinerja rendah yang umumnya manfaat dari penggunaan game, dan lebih dari

setengah percaya game memiliki kemampuan untuk memotivasi berjuang dan khusus siswa

pendidikan.

Monday, December 14, 2015

Understanding Parenting According to the experts, Definitions, Example, Kind

Understanding Parenting According to the experts - Parenting is a pattern of behavior that is applied to the child and the relative consistency over time. Foster pattern definition
Type / Kind Parenting
In parenting parents tend to use certain parenting. According to dr. Baumrind, there are 3 kinds of parenting parents that is democratic, authoritarian and permissive.


a. Democratic
Democratic parenting is parenting that prioritize the interests of the child, but do not hesitate to control them. Parents with this behavior to be rational, always takes action on the ratio or thoughts. Parents of this type also be realistic about the ability of children, do not expect excessive beyond the capabilities of the child. the parents of this type also give the child the freedom to choose and to act and approach to children is warm. (Ira Petranto, 2005). For example, when parents set to close the bathroom door when taking a bath with the given explanation, knocked on the door when entering the room parents, explaining the differences of men and women, discuss things that should not be made a child for instance should not be out of the shower with naked, so parents of democratic compromise with the child. (Debri, 2008).

b. Otoriter- Understanding Parenting According to Experts
Parenting is otherwise likely to set a standard that absolutely must be followed, usually accompanied by threats mislalnya, if you do not want to eat, then it will not talk to. Parents of this type tend to force, to rule and punish. If the child does not want to do what the parents, then the parents of this type do not hesitate to punish the child. Parents are also not familiar with this type of compromise and in communicating normally unidirectional. (Ira Petranto, 2005). For example, children have to close the bathroom door when showering without explanation, boys should not be playing with girls, prohibiting children asked why he was born, children are prohibited from asking about the opposite sex. In this case knows no compromise. Children like or dislike, want or do not want to have to meet the targets set by their parents. The child is an object that must be formed of parents who feel better to know which one is best for their children. (Debri, 2008).
c. Permissive
Upbringing gives her the opportunity to do something without adequate supervision thereof. They tend not admonish / warn the child if the child is in danger and very little guidance given by them, so it is often preferred by children. (Ira Petranto, 2005). For example, children whose parents entered the room without knocking the door is left, naked from the bathroom left without being reprimanded, let the kids see a picture that is not feasible for a small child, the child is still small degan consideration. Actually, parents who menerapka upbringing like this just do not want to conflict with his son. (Debri, 2008).

Characteristics of Children in Relation to Parenting Parents
Democratic upbringing will yield characteristics of children who are independent, self-control, has a good relationship with friends, able to cope with stress, have an interest in new things and cooperative towards others.
Authoritarian parenting will produce the characteristics of children timid, reserved, closed, no initiative, fond opposed, like breaking the norms, weak personality, anxious and withdrawn.
Permissive parenting will produce the characteristics of children who are impulsive, aggressive, disobedient, spoiled, less independent, selfish, less confident and less socially mature (Rina M. Taufik, 2006).


Terms Effective Parenting

Effective parenting can be seen from the results so the child is able to understand the rules in society, the most important requirement of effective parenting is the foundation of love and affection.

Here things are done for the sake of the parents toward effective parenting:
a. Parenting should be dynamic
Parenting should be in line with the growth and development of children. For example, the application of parenting for children under five is different from parenting to children of school age. Because the ability to think toddlers are still modest. So parenting must be accompanied by communication that can not rambling and understandable language.
b. Parenting should be in accordance with the needs and abilities of children
This needs to be done because of the needs and abilities of different children. Shanti estimate the age of one year, the potential of the child has begun to be seen is like when they hear the music, he is more interested than his age, if parents already have an idea of the potential of the child, then she needs to be directed and facilitated.
c. Father mother must be compact
Fathers and mothers should apply the same upbringing. In this case, both parents should "compromise" in a set of values that can and does.
d. Parenting must be accompanied by the positive behavior of parents
Application of parenting also requires positive attitudes of parents so that it can serve as an example / role model for his son. Instill good values with accompanying explanations are easy to understand.
e. Effective communication
Requirements to communicate effectively is simple: take the time to talk with children. Be a good listener and do not underestimate the child's opinion. In every discussion, parents can give suggestions, feedback or straighten the erroneous views of the child so that the child is more focused.
f. Discipline
Discipline also be part of parenting, start from small things and simple. For example, clean up the room before leaving for school children must also be taught to make a daily schedule so that it can be regularly and effectively manage its operations. But discipline must be flexibly adapted to the needs / the child's condition.
g. Parents consistently
Parents also can apply a consistent attitude, for example, children should not drink cold water if you're coughing, but if the child is in good health yes is fine. From there he learned to consistently against something, otherwise the parents also have to be consistent, do not let others words with deeds (Theresia S. Indira, 2008).

Understanding Parenting According to Experts


Main Factors Influencing Parenting
a. Culture
Parents retain the traditional concept of the role of parents felt that their parents managed to educate them well, then they use similar techniques in educating their foster children.

b. Education Parents
Parents who have more knowledge in parenting, it will understand the needs of children.

c. Socio-Economic Status
Parents from lower middle class tend to be harder / more permessif in parenting (Hurlock, E, B 2002).

Philips Electric Razors Mustache AquaTouch | Prices How to Wear

AquaTouch Philips Electric Razors Mustache - The development of the digital era are now highly developed of gadgets, automotive, household appliances dah even now until Shaver mustache, beard Philips Electronics Aquatouch that brand of philips. Phlips famous with the torch lighting home success in the market because the light can be relied upon, in addition to light is also durable that even if the price is above average with the other lights brand but as a consumer I feel satisfied with philips wear in every room of the house.

Mustache and beard shaver philips electric aquatouch we are more indulgent, to cut mustache and beard, I also feel that the electric shaver mustache, I feel more comfortable, not afraid of getting hurt as safe to use. safe for skin and certainly got the perfect shaving results.

Image of mustache and beard Shaver Philips Electronics

Philips AquaTouch
Philips AquaTouch Front



Philips AquaTouch
Philips AquaTouch Looks Left

Philips AquaTouch
Philips AquaTouch Looks Right


Philips AquaTouch
How to clean the Philips AquaTouch

Selling Price Razors Philips and Philips AquaTouch ApuaTouch Plus
Philips AquaTouch consists of two models: Aquatouch Plus (AT890) and AquaTouch (AT750). AT890 has DualPrecision technology, storage pockets and trimmer. Available starting in October 2011, Philips Price AquaTouch Plus Rp.690,000 Rp.450,000 While the price of Philips AquaTouch. AquaTouch Philips products are available in department stores, hypermarkets, electronics stores and shop equipment


How to Use Philips Shaver Mustache
How to use Philips Aqua Touch
The following tutorial How to use mustache Shaver philips I of philips.co.id

A. Important
Read this user manual carefully before using it and save it for future reference.


B. Warning
This tool is not intended for use by persons (including children) with reduced physical, sensory or mental skills are lacking, or lack of experience and knowledge, unless they are given supervision or direction regarding the use of tools by the person responsible for their safety.
Children should be supervised to ensure they do not play with the appliance.


C. Carefully
Keep the appliance remains dry (Fig. 1).
Use and store the appliance at a temperature between 15 ° C and 35 ° C.
Remove the batteries from the appliance if you will not use it for a month or more.


D. Standards Compliance
This Philips appliance complies with all standards regarding electromagnetic fields (EMF). If handled properly and in accordance with this user manual, the appliance is safe to use based on scientific evidence available today.



E. Setting up use Install battery
This tool is run by two R6 AA 1.5 volt batteries.
We recommend using alkaline batteries Philips.
 Make sure your hands dry when inserting the batteries
Remove the battery compartment lid (Fig. 2).
Insert two batteries into the battery compartment (Fig. 3).

Note: Make sure the + and - on the batteries as marked in the battery compartment.

Note: Shaver will not work if the batteries wrong location
replace the battery compartment lid to the appliance. First insert the upper lid, (1) then press the bottom (2) until you hear a click (Fig. 4).

F. How to avoid damage due to battery leakage
Do not let the tool is at a temperature above 35 ° C.
Remove the batteries if you are not going to use the appliance for a month or more.
Do not leave empty batteries in the appliance


G. shaving time
Two new batteries can be used to shave for 60 minutes.

H. Using the appliance Shaving
Your skin may need 2 or 3 weeks to get accustomed to the Philips system. Shaving on dry skin gives the best results.
Sorong on / off button upwards to switch on the shaver (Fig. 5).
Move the shaving heads on your skin. Perform straight and circular movements (Fig. 6).
Sorong on / off button down to turn off the shaver.
Attach the protective cap on the shaver to prevent damage to the shaving heads (Fig. 7).


I. Cleaning and maintenance beard shaver philips
Never use scouring pads, abrasive cleaning agents or aggressive liquids such as petrol or acetone to clean the appliance.
Regular cleaning guarantees better shaving results.
To clean optimally and easily available Philips Shaving Head Spray (type no. HQ110).
Ask the information on your Philips dealer.
Note: Philips Shaving Head Cleaning Spray may not be available in all countries. Contact Customer Service Center in your country about availability in your country.

You can also clean the shaver in the following way:

J. Once a week: shaving unit and hair chamber
Switch off the shaver.
Clean the top of the appliance with the cleaning brush (Fig. 8).
Press the release button (1) and remove the shaving unit (2) (Fig. 9).
Clean the inside of the hair chamber with the cleaning brush (Fig. 10).
Clean the inside of the shaving unit with the cleaning brush (Fig. 11).
Replace the shaving unit on the shaver


K. Every two months: shaving heads
Switch off the shaver.
Press the release button (1) and remove the shaving unit (2) (Fig. 9).
To remove the retaining frame, push the sides of the central spring so as to face each other (1). Then lift the retaining frame out of the shaving unit (2) (Fig. 12).
Slide the shaving heads out of the retaining frame (Fig. 13).

Do not mix up the cutters and protective components.
This is very important because each cutter is sharpened by his patron parts to optimize performance. If you accidentally mix up this pair, it will take several weeks to restore the shaving performance.
Clean the cutter with the short hairy part in the cleaning brush (Fig. 14) .Sikat the direction of the arrow with caution.
Clean protector with cleaning brush (Fig. 15).
Slide the shaving heads back into the retaining frame and put the retaining frame back into the shaving unit (Fig. 16).
Replace the shaving unit on the shaver.


L. extra thorough cleaning
In order to more closely cleaning, put the shaving heads in the cleaning liquid (like alcohol) every six months. To release the shaving heads, follow steps 1 to 4 described above. After cleaning, lubricate the central point on the inside of the protector with a drop of sewing machine oil to prevent wear of the shaving heads


M. Replacement
Replace the shaving heads every 2 years or if it is damaged or worn. Replace only with the shaving heads HQ4 ÇPhilips only.
Switch off the shaver.
Press the release button (1) and remove the shaving unit (2) (Fig. 9).
To remove the retaining frame, push the sides of the central spring so as to face each other (1). Then lift the retaining frame out of the shaving unit (2) (Fig. 12).
Remove the shaving heads out of the retaining frame and replace with a new one (Fig. 13).
Put the retaining frame back into the shaving unit.
Replace the shaving unit on the shaver.

N. Accessories
The following accessories are available:
HQ4 Ç Philips shaving heads.
HQ110 Philips Shaving Head Cleaning Spray (not available in China).


Environmental O.
Batteries contain substances that can pollute the environment. Do not dispose of empty batteries with normal household waste, but dispose of in an official collection point for batteries. Always remove the battery before you discard and fill tool to an official collection point.
Do not dispose of the tool along the normal household waste if the tool was not used anymore, but submit to the collection point authorized for recycling. By doing this, you help to preserve the environment (Fig. 17)

P. Warranty & service
If you need service or information or experience problems, please visit the Philips website at www.philips.comatau contact the Philips Customer Care Centre in your country (you can find its phone number in the worldwide guarantee leaflet). If there is no Customer Care Centre in your country, go to your local Philips dealer.


Q. Limitations of warranty
Shaving heads (cutters and guards) are not covered by the warranty provisions of internal


After reading how to use the shaver mustache electric whisker electrically Philips Aqua Touch is hopefully KUMISer ^ _ ^ can be helped in operating, cleaning, maintaining, and remember one more thing most important AVOID THE REACH OF CHILDREN, do not underestimate it because shaver mustache electrically philips including dangerous goods for children /

Saturday, December 12, 2015

Definition Work Agreement, Papers

Understanding Employment Agreement - Employment agreement according to Law No. 13 of 2003 Article 1 number 14 is an agreement between workers and employers or employer which contains the terms of employment rights and obligations of both parties. Employment agreement should basically also contains provisions relating to the employment relationship, the rights and obligations of workers and the rights and obligations of employers.


Furthermore, regarding the sense of an agreement, there are more opinions Subekti he stated that an agreement is an agreement between a worker with an employer, an agreement which is characterized by traits for a wage or salary of certain agreed upon and the existence of a relationship in peratas (Dutch "dierstverhanding" ) is a relationship based on which one party (the employer) entitled to give orders that must be obeyed by the other party (workers). (Subekti, Assorted Treaty, (Bandung: Alumni Publishers, 1977), p. 63.)

Employment agreement which is based on the notion of Law Number 13 Year 2003 on Employment does not mention the form of written or oral agreement; as well as to the time period specified or sebagaiman not previously regulated in Law Number 25 Year 1997 on Manpower. (Then Husni, op.cit., P. 55.)

For employment agreement is not requested specific forms. So it can be done orally, with a letter of appointment by the employer or in writing, the letter of agreement signed by both parties. The law only stipulates that if the agreement was held in writing, mailing costs and other additional costs must be borne by the employer. Moreover, the agreement held verbally, agreements made tertulispun usually held briefly once, do not contain all the rights and obligations of both parties.

As part of the agreement in general, the employment agreement should qualify the validity of the agreement as set out in pasl 1320 Civil Law (KUH Per). This provision is also contained in article 52 paragraph 1 of Law No. 13 of 2003 on

Employment which states that an agreement was made on the basis of:
Agreement of both parties;
The ability or competence to take legal actions;
The existence of job dijanjkan;
Promised jobs should not be contrary to public order, morality, and the provisions of the legislation in force.

Agreement of both parties, commonly called the agreement for which is joined to the point that the parties entered into an agreement to be agreed or agreed working, loyal alliance regarding matters diperjanjkan. What is desired that the desired one party to another. The workers accept a job offer, and employers accept these workers to be employed.

Ability or prowess both parties made a pact meant the skilled workers and employers to make arrangements. A person is deemed competent to make arrangements if those concerned are of legal age. Provisions of labor law gives a minimum age limit of 18 years (Article 1 paragraph 26 of Law No. 13 of 2003 on Labour). Moreover a person is competent to make an agreement if the person is not mentally disturbed or insane.

The existence of the contracted work, in terms of Article 1320 KUH Per is a particular case. The contracted work is the object of the employment agreement anatar workers with employers, the legal consequences created rights and obligations of the parties.

Object of the agreement (work) should be permitted that should not be contrary to law, public order and decency. This type of work agreed upon is one element of an agreement that should be mentioned clearly.

The four conditions are cumulative meaning that must be met everything new can be said that the agreement is valid. Conditions of free will of both parties and the ability or competence of both parties in making agreements in civil law referred to as a condition of subjective because it involves the person who made the agreement, while the condition of the work contracted and the work contracted to be kosher called objective requirements because it involves an object agreement. If the objective requirements are not met, then the agreement was null and void the original meaning of the agreement deemed never existed. If the requirements are not met subjective, then the legal consequences of the agreement may be canceled, the party does not give agreement is not free, as well as by a parent / guardian or pengampu for people who are not competent to make an agreement can request the cancellation of the agreement to the judge. Thus the agreement has the force of law for not canceled by the judge.

The elements that exist in a labor agreement:

1. Due to the work or jobs
In an employment agreement there must be work of an agreement (the object of the agreement), the work must be done by the workers, only with the permission of the entrepreneur can get someone else. It is described in the Code of Civil Code section 1603a which reads:
"Workers are required to conduct their own work; only with the permission of the employer he can tell a third person to replace ".
The nature of the work performed by the worker concerned with the very personal because of the skill or expertise, then according to the law if the worker dies, the employment agreement is broken and void.

2. The command element
Manifestations of work given to workers by the employer is the worker must submit to the order employers to do the work in accordance with the agreement. This is where the difference working relationships with other relationships, for example, the relationship between doctor and patient, lawyer with the client. The relationship is an employment relationship as doctors, lawyers are not subject to the patient's or client's orders.

3. The existence of wage
Wages play an important role in employment (employment agreement), it can even be said that the main purpose of a worker working on the entrepreneur is to earn wages. So if there is no element of wages, then the relationship is not an employment relationship. As an inmate who is required to do a particular job, a hospitality student who was doing field practice at the hotel.

4. Specific Time
To be appointed by the words of a certain time or zekere tijd as an indispensable element in the employment agreement is that the employment relationship between employers and workers are not continuous or immortal. So it was not a specific time that is associated with the length of the employment relationship between the employer and the worker. The specific time can be specified in the employment agreement, may also not specified. In addition, the specific time, although not specified in the employment agreement may also be based on the laws or customs. (Then Husni, op.cit., P. 41.)

Period of employment agreement can be made for a specific time for the working relationship limited period of validity, and an unspecified time for the working relationship is not limited to the period of validity or the completion of a particular job.

Employment agreements are made for a certain time commonly referred to contract employment or employment agreement is not fixed. The status of the workers are temporary workers or contract workers. As for the labor agreement is made for an unspecified time usually called permanent labor agreements and the status of its workers are full-time workers.

Employment agreements are made for a certain time must be made in writing (Article 57 Paragraph (1) of Act 13 of 2003 on Manpower). This provision is intended to better ensure or maintain things that are not desirable in connection with termination of employment contract. A work agreement for a specified time shall not require the trial period.

Understanding the Employment Agreement

In Article 59 Paragraph (1) of Act 13 of 2003 on Labor states that Labor Agreement for a certain period of time can only be made for specific jobs by type and nature of the job will be completed within a certain time, namely:
Jobs that once completed or are temporary in nature;
Estimated completion of work in the not too long and not more than three (3) years;
The work that is seasonal; or
Work related to new products, new activities, or additional products that are still in the experimental or exploratory.

Under these provisions, it is clear that the employment agreement for a certain period of time can not be held for a permanent job.

In the article Understanding Labor Agreement definition, this paper I'm using as a footnote reference, may be useful and can be used as paper work agreement

Friday, December 11, 2015

Learning Methods of Inquiry, Understanding, paper, Step, According to Experts

Learning Methods of Inquiry, Definition Papers, Step According to the Experts - Methods of Inquiry is a way of delivering instructional materials to provide an opportunity for students to learn to develop the potential of the intellectual in the fabric of the activities that the formulation itself to find something as a convincing answer to the problems that confronted him through the process of tracking data and information as well as logical thinking, critical and systematic. (Slamento. Teaching and Learning Process Kridit Semester. Jakarta: Earth Literacy. 1993. Hlm 116)

Inquiry method term in the English language, this is a technique or method that is used by teachers to teach the class. The implementation is as follows: the teacher divides the task of researching a problem to the class. Students are divided into groups, and each group received a specific task to be done. (Roestiyah. Teaching and Learning Strategies. Jakarta: Rineka Reserved. 1991 Hlm 75)

This method is derived from John Dewey, the main purpose of this method is to provide training to the students in thinking. This method can avoid to make hasty conclusions, to weigh possible solutions, and suspend the decision until there is sufficient evidence. (Muhaimin. Teaching and Learning Strategies. Surabaya: PT. Citra Media. 1996. Hlm 88)

The inquiry method is a method that stimulates students to think, analyze a problem to find a solution. In the English language is called problem solving method. This method of fostering the capacity to see the exact reasons of a problem, which in turn can be found how the settlement. Even this method is a method that foster students to be able to think scientifically, that the way of thinking that follow a certain path-level in nature completion. The ability to gain insight can be trained and developed with this kind of teaching method. (Djajadisastra. Methods to Teach. Bandung: Space .. 1981. Hlm 19)

Method of inquiry was also developed by Suchman to teach students to understand the research process. (Joyce and Weil. Models of Teaching Prentice: Prentice / Hall International. 1986. Hlm 56). Suchman keen to help students conduct research independently and discipline. It is based on the idea that children have always had a curiosity to know. Suchman want students to question why an event occurred and examined by collecting and processing data logically. Thus, the method of inquiry would strengthen the natural urge to explore with great passion and with full seriousness.

This method requires the ability to be able to see cause and effect or relationships between various data, which in turn can find the key to opening the case. This kind of activity is a typical characteristic of an activity intelligence. This method develops the ability to think fertilized with the opportunity to observe problems, collect data, analyze data, formulate a hypothesis, looking for relationships (data) are missing from the data that has been collected to then draw conclusions that are the result of the problem solving. Such a way of thinking, commonly called the scientific way of thinking. Way of thinking that results in a conclusion or decision which is believed to be true because the entire process of solving the problem that has been followed and controlled from the first data collected and analyzed until the conclusion drawn or set. Such a way of thinking actually can be developed using a problem-solving method. (Djajadiasatra. Methods to Teach. Bandung: Space .. 1981. Hlm 19-20)

From the above description it can be concluded that the method of inquiry is a teaching method which provides an opportunity for students to find their own prior knowledge that they do not know. While the purpose of this inquiry method is to assist students in developing the intellectual and skills arising from the questions and investigate to get an answer in accordance with their curiosity. (Joyce And Weil. Models of Teaching. Prentice / Hall International e. 1986. Hlm 57)

Although originally developed for the inquiry method of the natural sciences, but the inquiry procedure can be applied on all topics that can be formulated into a situation that is full of questions. Of situations full of questions will lead to intellectual confrontation, which in turn encourages inquiry. With the inquiry methods students are conditioned to think critically and creatively as well as to encourage kesimpulanya itself based on the observation that they do.

In this study the model of inquiry that is used is the model developed by Suchman inquiry. Model this inquiry begins by presenting the situation filled with questions. After the situation presented to the students, then the students were told that they need to explore some aspects of the situation, for instance about the nature and definition. At this time students are allowed to ask was answered by the teacher only with the word "yes" or "no". The last step the student is expected to conclude its own answer to the problem posed.

Step-by-Step Method of Inquiry.
Measures more models of inquiry are as follows: (Ibid. Hlm 63)
The first step :
Presents a problem
Explaining the research procedures
Presenting conflicting or different situations
Step two:
Collecting and analyzing the data
Examine the nature of the object and the conditions encountered
 Checking things that happen on the problem
Third step :
Reviewing data and experimentation
Isolating the corresponding variable
Formulate hypotheses and test
Step four:
Organize, formulate conclusions
Draw a conclusion
Step five:
Analyzing the process of inquiry
Analyzing the inquiry procedure and to develop more effective procedures
   
Principles and norms contained in the method of inquiry is cooperation, intellectual freedom, and equality Further stated that during the process of inquiry students interact with other students and with teachers. (Ibid. Hlm 63)

On the other hand the precision of the method of inquiry learning with regard to effectiveness and efisiensi.efektivitas with respect to the objectives to be achieved, while efficiency with respect to the timeliness and ease of implementation.

From the description above it is to see the effectiveness of the method of inquiry to be evaluated based on student activity during the process of inquiry. The student activities include interest, sincerity, enthusiasm, dare to express opinions either to the teacher or the student, the opinions of other students as well as joy. This activity was observed at each step of the model of inquiry.

Troubleshooting methods can also be made through the following steps:
The introduction of trouble (problem)
Defining the problem
Suggestions regarding the various possible solutions
Hypothesis testing
Verifying conclusions. (Muhaimin. Teaching and Learning Strategies. Surabaya: PT. Citra Media. 1996. Hlm 88)


Inquiry method of learning in order to be able to run smoothly, to note the following:

a. Teacher interaction with students
Teachers control the interaction in the classroom as well as directing the inquiry procedure. In this process the necessary co-operation between teachers and students, and between students and students. Students are given the freedom to express opinions or asking questions.

b. The role of teachers
In the method of inquiry the teacher acts as a facilitator, motivator, and informants. As a facilitator, the teacher provides the facilities needed by students and create conducive conditions. As a motivator, teachers encourage students to always act diligently in conducting activities by asking questions or responses that are spur and guide the students. Meanwhile, as informants, teachers act as a source of information for students but in this case the teacher does not give direct information.

Methods destination Inquiry
The main purpose of the use of methods of inquiry (troubleshooting) is developing the ability to think, especially in the search for cause and effect and purpose of a problem. This method is to train students in the ways of approaching and ways to take measures when it will solve a problem is to give the students knowledge of practical skills valuable / useful for the purposes of daily life. This method provides the basics of practical experience on the ways to solve a problem and these skills can be applied for the purposes of facing other problems in society.

Given the above objectives, the solution to a problem should not be taught as science alone, but should be a tool for students to further their own can solve all kinds of problems that may be encountered, now or later, in school, at home or in the community.

Other purposes apart from the main objective mentioned above, namely:
Learn how to act in a new situation.
Learn how to get out of a difficult situation.
Learn how to consider the decision.
Learn how to restrict suatau issue.
Learn how to find solutions.
Learn to realize that every problem there is a certain way to solve it.
Learn to examine a problem from all angles solving.
Learning to work systematically at a time when solving a problem.
Learning to test the correctness of a decision that has been set. (Djajadisastra. Methods to Teach. Bandung: Space. 1981. Hlm 24-25)

I am posting this article are included with the footnote to be referenced in the thesis or paper Understanding the Learning Methods of Inquiry. May be useful